Genetic Trait List

What we Assess

Athletigen gives you insight into 20 different traits related to the categories below.

   Nutrition

   Response to Training

  • Caffeine Sensitivity
  • Response to Dieting
  • Unsaturated Fat Metabolism
  • Caloric Intake Tendency
  • Carbohydrate Intake Tendency
  • Saturated Fat Sensitivity
  • Sensitivity to Weight Gain
  • Lactate Threshold Trainability
  • Power vs Endurance
  • Sprint and Power Performance
  • Baseline Heart Rate
  • Oxygen Delivery
  • Heart Rate Trainability
  • Body Temperature

   Nutrition

  • Caffeine Sensitivity
  • Response to Dieting
  • Unsaturated Fat Metabolism
  • Caloric Intake Tendency
  • Carbohydrate Intake Tendency
  • Saturated Fat Sensitivity
  • Sensitivity to Weight Gain

   Response to Training

  • Lactate Threshold Trainability
  • Power vs Endurance
  • Sprint and Power Performance
  • Baseline Heart Rate
  • Oxygen Delivery
  • Heart Rate Trainability
  • Body Temperature

  Injury & Recovery

  Sport Psychology

  • Tendon Injury
  • Disc Degeneration
  • Ligament Injury
  • Performance Under Stress
  • Propensity to Train
  • Novelty Seeking

  Injury & Recovery

  • Tendon Injury
  • Disc Degeneration
  • Ligament Injury

  Sport Psychology

  • Performance Under Stress
  • Propensity to Train
  • Novelty Seeking

Examples

Injury Predisposition

Effect: Lower Vulnerability to Tendon Injury

Short Summary: Less prone to tendon injuries than the average person

How does this affect my training?

You may be less vulnerable to tendon injury. This includes your Achilles tendon, which joins your heel

to your calf muscles, and tendons in your elbow and shoulder. Compared to others, your strong tendons may give you the added benefit of less muscle cramping and better lower-body flexibility. Activities that involve pushing off your foot and strongly contracting your calf muscles will stress your Achilles tendon. Repetitive arm, elbow, and wrist movements associated most often with tennis and baseball will stress the tendons attached to your elbow. Although your chances of tendon injury may be lower than average, be sure to practice proper technique for movements that put extra strain on these tendons. This will help you sustain a high level of performance for longer during your athletic pursuits.

Why am I less prone to tendon injuries?

Certain sports increase your chances of tendon injury, but genetics also plays a role. Your COL5A1 gene is responsible for producing a core component of collagen required for proper tendon fiber assembly. Your variation of COL5A1 may result in stronger tendon fibers and is associated with better protection from tendon injuries. The same genetic variant has been linked to less muscle cramping and increased flexibility of your lower body compared to others.

State of the Research

The association between COL5A1 rs12722 and tendon injury protection has more than 10 supporting studies ranging in size from 50 to over 1000 individuals. These studies have also encompassed individuals from multiple races. This marker is currently the focus of research attempting to identify how collagen and tendons are strengthened in individuals with the CC genotype (A rating).

Athletic Performance

Effect: Power-oriented Muscle Performance

Short Summary: Higher ratio of power-oriented muscles associated with explosive performance and elite speed/power athletes

How does this affect my training?

Muscle structure is a major component contributing to your overall power vs endurance

performance. Your muscles may be favorable for explosive power and speed performance.

This can give you a competitive edge in sports that require quick and powerful muscle contractions like sprints, jumps, swimming, and weightlifting. Having power-oriented muscles can sometimes lead you to overexert other parts of your body and may increase your chance of injury. For this reason, be more cautious of your form and movements when training and explore your injury reports

to know what areas may need special attention. Look to your power vs. endurance report to consider your overall performance and better understand how to align your training program with your genetic strengths.

Why do I have increased power performance?

Your ACTN3 gene, sometimes called the “Sprint Gene,” encodes for an important protein found in certain muscle cells. Located specifically in fast-twitch muscle fibres, ACTN3’s activity may strongly influence the rate, speed, and power at which these muscles contract. Your variation of ACTN3 may give rise to a higher density of this protein making your fast-twitch muscle fibres better suited for power and sprint performance. Your variant has also been associated with elite sprint/power athletes. Of course, you will have to complement your genetics with the proper training to truly excel in such sports.

State of the Research

ACTN3 has been referred to as the “Sprint Gene” by many media and popular science sources. Although there is no such thing as a single “Sprint Gene,” substantial research has been performed to determine if and how ACTN3 variants, including rs1815739, are associated with modified muscle structure and athletic performance.

Since 2003, when Yang et al (2003) first identified an association between ACTN3 and athletic performance, more than 15 high impact studies have validated and replicated this association in large sample groups and across nearly all ethnics groups. These findings have given ACTN3 and the rs1815739 marker very high confidence (A rating). Ongoing studies are examining the amount of variation that this marker plays in the physical outcomes and how this variation interacts with environmental factors.

Nutrition

Effect: Higher Sensitivity to Saturated Fats

Short Summary: Higher susceptibility of weight gain due to saturated fat intake

How does this affect my training?

Some people gain weight more easily than others and have to watch what they eat. When it comes to a diet high in saturated fats your chances of gaining weight may be higher than average. Foods high in saturated fats include fatty and processed meats, and high fat dairy products. In excess,

saturated fats are widely regarded as bad for your health. But don’t swear off saturated fats altogether. Saturated fats are important for your energy, recovery, and physical performance.

To reach your performance goals without compromising your weight, balance your training and diet to determine healthy portions and the best time of day to eat them. If you are concerned about the optimal saturated fat intake for your peak performance, consider consulting a health professional. Check out the related traits section to see more traits related to fat and body weight.

Why am I sensitive to saturated fats?

How your body responds to certain foods is influenced by your genetics. Your variation of the APOA2 gene is associated with a higher sensitivity to saturated fats leading to increased weight gain. This gene is suggested to play a role in fat metabolism and weight gain although how it affects these processes is still unclear. Interestingly your variation of APOA2 is also associated with a higher tendency to include more fats in your diet.

State of the Research

Many studies (more than 30) have examined the association between APOA2 rs5082 and fat sensitivity. These studies range in size from 250 individuals to over 5000 and have contrasted this genetic association across numerous ethnic groups, including African, Asian, European and Native American. This comprehensive research gives APOA2 and the rs5082 marker very high confidence (A rating).

Disclaimer

Your outcomes and associations are statistical in nature and should be viewed as contributors to traits rather than controllers.

Many other factors, including other genes, gene interactions and environmental factors, can influence your physical traits.

The contribution of one genetic marker represents only a small percentage of the factors influencing a given trait, however, for some individuals this small percentage may be enough to result in an observable difference.

Athletigen’s genetic tests are not considered diagnostic in nature. In most cases the reported outcomes represent a normal range of human physiology and do not represent abnormal, deficient, or disease traits.

Injury Predisposition

Effect: Lower Vulnerability to Tendon Injury

Short Summary: Less prone to tendon injuries than the average person

How does this affect my training?

You may be less vulnerable to tendon injury. This includes your Achilles tendon, which joins your heel

to your calf muscles, and tendons in your elbow and shoulder. Compared to others, your strong tendons may give you the added benefit of less muscle cramping and better lower-body flexibility. Activities that involve pushing off your foot and strongly contracting your calf muscles will stress your Achilles tendon. Repetitive arm, elbow, and wrist movements associated most often with tennis and baseball will stress the tendons attached to your elbow. Although your chances of tendon injury may be lower than average, be sure to practice proper technique for movements that put extra strain on these tendons. This will help you sustain a high level of performance for longer during your athletic pursuits.

Why am I less prone to tendon injuries?

Certain sports increase your chances of tendon injury, but genetics also plays a role. Your COL5A1 gene is responsible for producing a core component of collagen required for proper tendon fiber assembly. Your variation of COL5A1 may result in stronger tendon fibers and is associated with better protection from tendon injuries. The same genetic variant has been linked to less muscle cramping and increased flexibility of your lower body compared to others.

State of the Research

The association between COL5A1 rs12722 and tendon injury protection has more than 10 supporting studies ranging in size from 50 to over 1000 individuals. These studies have also encompassed individuals from multiple races. This marker is currently the focus of research attempting to identify how collagen and tendons are strengthened in individuals with the CC genotype (A rating).

Athletic Performance

Effect: Power-oriented Muscle Performance

Short Summary: Higher ratio of power-oriented muscles associated with explosive performance and elite speed/power athletes

How does this affect my training?

Muscle structure is a major component contributing to your overall power vs endurance

performance. Your muscles may be favorable for explosive power and speed performance.

This can give you a competitive edge in sports that require quick and powerful muscle contractions like sprints, jumps, swimming, and weightlifting. Having power-oriented muscles can sometimes lead you to overexert other parts of your body and may increase your chance of injury. For this reason, be more cautious of your form and movements when training and explore your injury reports

to know what areas may need special attention. Look to your power vs. endurance report to consider your overall performance and better understand how to align your training program with your genetic strengths.

Why do I have increased power performance?

Your ACTN3 gene, sometimes called the “Sprint Gene,” encodes for an important protein found in certain muscle cells. Located specifically in fast-twitch muscle fibres, ACTN3’s activity may strongly influence the rate, speed, and power at which these muscles contract. Your variation of ACTN3 may give rise to a higher density of this protein making your fast-twitch muscle fibres better suited for power and sprint performance. Your variant has also been associated with elite sprint/power athletes. Of course, you will have to complement your genetics with the proper training to truly excel in such sports.

State of the Research

ACTN3 has been referred to as the “Sprint Gene” by many media and popular science sources. Although there is no such thing as a single “Sprint Gene,” substantial research has been performed to determine if and how ACTN3 variants, including rs1815739, are associated with modified muscle structure and athletic performance.

Since 2003, when Yang et al (2003) first identified an association between ACTN3 and athletic performance, more than 15 high impact studies have validated and replicated this association in large sample groups and across nearly all ethnics groups. These findings have given ACTN3 and the rs1815739 marker very high confidence (A rating). Ongoing studies are examining the amount of variation that this marker plays in the physical outcomes and how this variation interacts with environmental factors.

Nutrition

Effect: Higher Sensitivity to Saturated Fats

Short Summary: Higher susceptibility of weight gain due to saturated fat intake

How does this affect my training?

Some people gain weight more easily than others and have to watch what they eat. When it comes to a diet high in saturated fats your chances of gaining weight may be higher than average. Foods high in saturated fats include fatty and processed meats, and high fat dairy products. In excess,

saturated fats are widely regarded as bad for your health. But don’t swear off saturated fats altogether. Saturated fats are important for your energy, recovery, and physical performance.

To reach your performance goals without compromising your weight, balance your training and diet to determine healthy portions and the best time of day to eat them. If you are concerned about the optimal saturated fat intake for your peak performance, consider consulting a health professional. Check out the related traits section to see more traits related to fat and body weight.

Why am I sensitive to saturated fats?

How your body responds to certain foods is influenced by your genetics. Your variation of the APOA2 gene is associated with a higher sensitivity to saturated fats leading to increased weight gain. This gene is suggested to play a role in fat metabolism and weight gain although how it affects these processes is still unclear. Interestingly your variation of APOA2 is also associated with a higher tendency to include more fats in your diet.

State of the Research

Many studies (more than 30) have examined the association between APOA2 rs5082 and fat sensitivity. These studies range in size from 250 individuals to over 5000 and have contrasted this genetic association across numerous ethnic groups, including African, Asian, European and Native American. This comprehensive research gives APOA2 and the rs5082 marker very high confidence (A rating).

Disclaimer

Your outcomes and associations are statistical in nature and should be viewed as contributors to traits rather than controllers.

Many other factors, including other genes, gene interactions and environmental factors, can influence your physical traits.

The contribution of one genetic marker represents only a small percentage of the factors influencing a given trait, however, for some individuals this small percentage may be enough to result in an observable difference.

Athletigen’s genetic tests are not considered diagnostic in nature. In most cases the reported outcomes represent a normal range of human physiology and do not represent abnormal, deficient, or disease traits.

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